Although there are variations in definition, and certainly variations among state hate crime laws, in general a hate crime is considered to be an illegal act against a person, institution, or property that is motivated (in whole or in part) by the offender’s prejudice against the victim’s group membership status. Although not all jurisdictions, academics, or professionals agree about who should be protected by hate crime laws, the majority of such laws describe the offender’s motivation based on prejudice against the victim’s, race, color, nationality, religion, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability status.
These arguments describe the relationship between bias crimes and parallel crimes. According to Jenness (2008), criminals who commit hate crimes intend to harm the victim as well as the community as a whole. Studies reveal that they can have psychological implications that are beyond other violent crimes, which are not encouraged by bias. Communities identify themselves with their members, thus a victim of hate crime can lead to other community members in his or her community to live in alienation and fear from the rest of the society. The fact that many states in the U.S are metropolitan means that it is easy for the implications brought by these crimes to trigger nationwide controversy. For example, the city of New York inhabits millions of people from all over the world. However, Caucasians constitute a substantial majority of this population. This leaves the group with the potential to oppress the opposite race if not controlled by certain laws and regulations. This explains the emergence of numerous human rights organizations to protect the underrepresented and enforce nondiscrimination. In New York, state law provides maximum and minimum sentences to those who commit hate felonies for specific types of bias crimes misdemeanor.
Racial violence, has always been a significant problem despite the enactment of numerous laws and regulations by the state. As a result, such violence raises fundamental issues that relate to economic development and overall American security. After the civil war, the American populace developed in their sense of nation as a model to the globe of a national republic of personal rights and political liberty (Franklin & Fitzgerald, 2012). This aimed at eliminating racism but to date the problem still persists. It has further led to bias crimes that are also encouraged by anti-religious and anti-ethnic views. In response, stakeholders have endorsed legislation to bias crimes as an appropriate way to punish racial violence.Upholding human rights is crucial for development of modern civilization and abuse of the same encourages insecurity and violence. Lawrence (2002) argues that it is rational, to differentiate bias crimes from other crimes. He further states that crimes such as violence and insecurity are a major contributor to economic recession, and these crimes should attract more severe punishment. Currently, the government’s legislation has the advantage of offering retribution and condemnation to hate criminals. The enactment of the Hate Crime Prevention Act in 2009 allows federal institutions to scrutinize and punish felonies promoted by bias towards an individual’s religion, race, sexual orientation, national origin, disability, or gender identity more severely than their parallel counterparts. Lawrence proposes that legislation of these offences should be done in more states and should fall within the jurisdiction of federal government.
Trying to use hate crime laws to police negative or abhorrent actions does not accomplish the true goal that the people who advocate these changes are after. Labeling a particular crime as special or different does not deter criminals from their true intention. If we place a "special" label on certain types of murder, rape or vandalism we are not preventing the hate that is the motive for such crimes. This is not the true goal of society. Helen Dodge makes a compelling argument to shun the members of such hateful communities in her article "Special Crimes Need Special Laws", when she says that the public should band together against such forces (Dodge 140). However, even she had to admit that these special laws won't deter the criminals who practice these violent acts. Murder is murder and regardless of motive if...
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Hate crimes are an irrational, ignorant and cowardly expression of desperation. A person who commits a hate crime is desperate to feel better, superior and in control. That being said, there should not be special laws and mandatory sentences for people who commit these heinous acts of violence because they do not accomplish the goals of eradicating or deterring bigotry.
Hate crime legislation: Definitions & existing laws
Another example of a criminal victimization is the national and sensational criminal case More about Essay about Hate Crime Victimization. Hate Crime Laws Essay
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Hate crimes affect not only individual victims, Continue for 1 more page Join now to read essay Hate Crimes. Are hate crime penalty enforcement laws.
Page 2 Hate crimes Essay. that do not include hate crime laws that do not contact with the hate criminal justice system; and he does not beling to an.Hate crimes are a specific type of crime committed against individuals or groups because of their race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, or ethnicity. Genocide is an extreme form of hate crime, and other examples include cross burnings, physical assault and even threatening text messages. Hate crimes often come about through differences between in groups and out groups, the animosity felt between them, and they are enabled through the behavior of sympathizers and spectators. As an upward law, or a law designed to punish dominant groups in society, rather than a downward law, which is designed to punish subordinate groups, hate crime laws are often underenforced. Beginning with an historical review of hate crimes, this article moves on to a discussion of the causes of hate crimes, continues with ways in which hate crimes can be prevented, and ends with a debate over the merits of additional hate crime legislation on the federal level.3. Laws creating distinct civil causes of action for the hate crimes 4. Laws requiring administrative agencies to collect hate crime stats. Sometimes the laws focus on war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity with the prohibition against discriminatory action limited to public officials. United state hate crime are punishable by federal prosecution if proved to have committed a hate crime. In October 2007 Congress has been considering the Matthew Shepherd Act which would now add to the list of types of hate crimes; gender, gender identity, sexual orientation and disability to the list. In 1993 the United States passed The National Hate crime Law to protect citizens from hate crimes.